SFlag.jpg (3115 bytes)History of the Ghadar Movement SFlag.jpg (3115 bytes)

by Jaspal Singh



The British View


"The word Ghadar means mutiny...it is aimed at bringing about a revolution in India in order to secure liberation from British Control. The headquarters of the Ghadar Party were established in San Francisco and the Party published their own paper known as the Ghadar, and founded an institution known as the Yugantar Ashram, the object of the institution being to instill patriotic feelings in young Indians and train them for a rising in India."  


- Director of the Intelligence Bureau,

Home Department, New Delhi 1934


"The Ghadar, or Mutiny, conspiracy derived its origin from the Pacific Coast of America, its centre being at San Francisco...the object of the paper (Ghadar) was to bring about a rising in India within few years because the people could no longer bear the oppression and tyranny practiced under English rule. It was stated that the Yugantar Ashram had been founded in San Francisco, and that in this institution books would be compiled, young preachers trained, and preparations for a rising would be taken in hand. The paper amply fulfilled the worst anticipations that could have been formed from such an introduction. It was violently anti-British in nature, playing on every passion that it could possibly excite...and urging all Indians to go to India with the express intention of committing murder, causing revolution and expelling the British Government by any means." 

- Account of Ghadr Conspiracy

Punjab Police, Lahore 1919


"...That these defendants in the year 1914, about the beginning of the European war, entered into a conspiracy the object of which was to produce mutiny and rebellion and the overthrow of the British Government in India...that in order to produce this rebellion and mutiny in India, these defendants did certain things in the United States of America... that these defendants conspired to recruit men in America, to give them training in the use of arms and explosives in America, to dispatch them to India to places on the border line of the Indian territory, there to be assembled and trained further by officers in part at least sent from America; that likewise in this country funds were provided,...that men were to be dispatched from here to carry these funds that were to be expanded in other places than America; that these men were to go themselves, some of them, and engage in this rebellion; that arms and ammunitions were to be purchased and shipped from our shores and from our borders; that passage was to be engaged in large numbers for returning persons desiring to enter into this military enterprise."

- Prosecution of Gadharites in the US

San Francisco 1917

(The British government spent $2.5 million on this trial, an enormous sum indicating the degree to which the Empire feared this movement.)



The Ghadar Movement was a movement of patriotic, progressive, democratic, and enlightened Indians living abroad, working for the emancipation of India from the yoke of British colonialism and the birth of a new India based on national and social emancipation. They organized themselves in 1913 among communities throughout the world, adopting the following goals and means:  

1. To liberate India with the force of arms from British servitude and to establish a free and independent India with equal rights for all.

2. To establish their headquarters in San Francisco, that would serve as a base to coordinate all the activities for achieving these aims and objectives.

3. To publish a weekly paper, Ghadar, in Urdu, Hindi, Punjabi and in other languages of India.

4. To hold organisational elections every year to elect a coordination committee from the different committees to carry out all the work.

5. To organize cells amongst Indian railway, industrial, and farm workers, as well as students who would be directly linked to the centre.

6. The coordination committee would elect a three-member commission to supervise the political and underground work.

7. Revenue would be drawn from each member through a monthly contribution of one dollar.

8. No discussion or debate was to take place on religion within the organization. Religion was considered a personal matter and that it had no place in the organization.

9. Every member was duty bound to participate in the liberation struggle of that country in which they were resident.


At the initial gathering in Astoria in 1913, Sohan Singh Bhakna was elected President, Kesar Singh Thathgarh, Vice President, Lala Hardayal, General Secretary, Lala Thakur Das Dhuri, Joint Secretary, and Pandit Kanshi Ram Mardauli, Treasurer.


In a conference held in Sacramento, California in December 1913, new members were included in the executive committee: Santokh Singh, Kartar Singh Sarabha, Arur Singh, Pirthi Singh, Pandit Jagat Ram, Karm Singh Cheema, Nidhan Singh Chugha, Sant Vasakha Singh, Pandit Munshi Ram, Harnam Singh Kotla, Nodh Singh. To carry out the secret and underground work of the party, a three-member commission was also constituted by Sohan Singh Bhakhna, Santokh Singh and Pandit Kanshi Ram.


Publication of Ghadar also began after this conference. On its masthead the paper had inscribed in bold letters - Enemy of the British Rule in India. It included articles on the conditions of the people of India under British hegemony, and it also dealt with the problems that confronted Indians abroad such as racial attacks and discrimination. It called upon the Indian people to unite and rise up against British rule and throw the British out of India. Ghadar was published in Urdu, Punjabi, Hindi and in other languages of India. Besides Ghadar, the Yugantar Ashram, the headquarters of the Ghadar Party, also brought out various publications to raise the consciousness of the people and organize them to revolt against the British. A poster entitled, "Jang Da Hoka" (Declaration of War), which was distributed widely, read as following:


Clarion Call for the Ghadar Army


The British have occupied our dear land. Our commerce and industry has been ruined. They have plundered and looted the wealth of Hindustan and brought famine and plague. More than 90 million Hindustanis do not even have one square meal a day. Thirty million have died due to famine and plague. They are sending all our produce and grains to England. It is due to these conditions of misery that Hindustanis have started going to far off lands such as Australia, Canada, America, and Africa and when they have begun to fill their stomachs, it has poked needles and pins in the heart of the British. Because it has opened the eyes of the Hindustanis and they are understanding all the schemes of the British, these British strangle us in India. And when we come abroad here they also make our lives miserable. They have closed Australia and Canada for us. Our mothers, sisters and children are treated like animals in Africa by the British.

Now the British are pressuring the American government to stop us from coming to the shores of America. The American government has said that if the British government is stopping the Hindus from coming to their own-ruled countries, Australia and Canada, why should we allow them to come here. This bill is in their parliament (Congress). If this bill is passed we will be ruined. Other countries will also make such laws. Now is the time to do something about this condition.


Brave Hindis! Awaken from your sleep. The British are getting you thrown out from everywhere. Let us unite and fight so such laws are not passed here. We should also think about, whether or not these laws pass, what should we do? What is our duty at this time? Our duty at this time is to prepare an army to fight against British rule in India which is the root of all our problems. This is not the time for talk. This is the time for war. How long will you wait? How long will the world keep calling you slaves? On Sunday, February 15, a huge gathering will take place in Stockton. All Hindus and Muslims of America are called upon to join. No more petition to the oppressors. Now we have to take our rights with sword. AN ARMY WILL BE RECRUITED FOR THE GHADAR IN INDIA.


Come brothers, you have earned plenty of dollars! Take the ship back to our motherland! Come let us go back to our motherland and raise the banner of revolt! Come to the gathering in Stockton and take a vow to go back to Hindustan and fight in the Ghadar! Just as this call is written in blood in the same fashion the letter of freedom will be written in ours and the blood of the British on the soil of Hindustan. For this oath, this call is being sent out from the Yugantar Ashram. This is not a paper, but a declaration of war! Stop everything and come! Do not delay! ONLY HE IS A BRAVE FIGHTER WHO FIGHTS FOR HIS COUNTRY. EVEN IF HE IS CUT INTO PIECES, HE DOES NOT LEAVE THE BATTLEFIELD.





Dear Friends,

We do not have to remind you; you all know how much we have suffered under the British rule. We all wish to get rid of this foreign tyrant who has been bleeding us white. The time is coming when our united efforts will be able to throw off the yoke of this aggressor.


Another world war is approaching. We must take advantage of this opportunity. England is sure to get involved in the coming war. Political wisdom demands that we must utilize this rare opportunity for our good. We must put forward our demand for complete independence when our enemy, British imperialism, is engaged in a life and death struggle.

To save her life, Britain will need India's friendship more than anything else. We must demand complete independence as the price of our friendship.


We must let the British rulers know in clear terms right that if they care for the friendship of India, they must be prepared to give India full independence at once. Otherwise India will resist to limit their effort to get any help from India. It is beside the point how we will resist, but resist we will.


Complete independence means India's control over treasury, foreign affairs, and military forces. Nothing short of that will do.


We must remember that we can no longer trust any more promises from the British imperialists. To our sorrow, we have found out many times that we can not rely upon their words. We must stand pat on our demands; we must one way or another unite until our demands are met.


The world situation is such that the British will think twice before refusing India's demand. We must not miss this golden opportunity.


To get full advantage of the situation, we must put up a strong united front. All those Hindustanis who really work for independence must come together in a united front. Personal differences must be forgotten. Unity of purpose is essential for our cause. All of us who hold India's freedom dear to us, must work to establish a formidable united front. Our demands backed by our united front will have a telling effect.


Our demands must be popularized among our countrymen. Our people must be made to act in case our demands are not met.


Now is the time to educate our people: tomorrow may be too late. During the war, martial law will make things difficult. Unless the masses are made ready to act, our demands will not have much weight. The British imperialists care little for empty resolutions unless they are backed by united might of the masses.


War may start any day. We have not a moment to lose. We must do our best to educate and organize the Indian masses while we have time. Our slogans must be such as:

Complete Independence or Non-cooperation! Freedom or Nothing Else! No Freedom, No Soldiers from India! No Freedom, No Money from India! Freedom or Resistance!


Yours for the cause

Soldiers of Independence




(Bilan, Complete Rendu, Translated from the Hindustan Ghadar)


(1) Englishmen drain from India and take to England every year 50 crore rupees ($167 million); consequently the Hindus have become so poor that the daily average income per capita is only 5 paise (2.5 cents).

(2) The land tax is more than 65% of the net produce.

(3) The expenditure on the education of 240 million persons is about 0.02 percent per head per annum,

about $40,000,000

on sanitation $6,000,000

but on the army $330,000,000

(4) Under the British rule, the famines are ever on the increase and in the last ten years 20 million men, women, and children have died of starvation.

(5) From the plagues that have occurred, during the sixteen years past, 8 million deaths have resulted. And the death rate during the last thirty years has steadily increased from 24 per mile to 34 per mile.

(6) Means are employed to spread disunion and disorder in the native states and to increase British influence there.

(7) Englishmen are not punished for murdering Hindus or for insulting Hindu women.

(8) With money taken form the Hindus, aid is given to English Christian priests.

(9) Attempt is always made to create enmity between people of different religious denominations.

(10) The arts and crafts (Industries) of India have been destroyed for England's benefit.

(11) Employing India's money, and sacrificing the lives of the Hindus as soldiers, China, Afghanistan, Burma, Egypt and Persia have been conquered.

(12) For the sake of the almighty dollar, the British government has forced poppy cultivation in India, thereby creating the drug menace for India and the world.


The Ghadarites wanted to establish a Democratic Republic of India in which all peoples, irrespective of their race, religion, gender, language, or national origin, would have equal rights. They envisioned a United States of India as a federation of all the nations, nationalities and tribal people of Hindustan. This was illustrated by the poster of United States of India issued by the Ghadar Party (see illustration). According to Bhagat Singh Bilga one of the few Ghadarites still alive, Ghadarites were influenced by the First War of India's Independence of 1857 (the oiriginal Great Ghadar), and the American, French, and Bolshevik Revolutions. They wanted a completely independent, secular, and democratic India in which there would be no exploitation of man by man.


A precursor of Ghadar, The Talvar, which was printed in Berlin, had on its front page in a April-May 1910 issue a couplet from Bhadur Shah Zafar, one of the leaders of the Ghadar of 1857, and the lead article was dedicated to May 10, 1857, the date of the uprising. The article concludes:


In memory of

Rani Lakshmi Bai and her comrades

Mandar and Kashi

Rana Kunwar Singh

Maulvi Ahmad Shah

Tantia Tope

Kuar Khuda Baksh

Ghulam Ghose Khan

Mangal Pandey

and of those tens of thousand men and women who perished in 1857 in the sacred attempt to wrench the mother from the hands of the Faranghi.



A March 19,1917 issue of Ghadar proclaimed in bold letters "RUSSIA HAS BECOME FREE, SOON INDIA WILL BE FREE", following the fall of the Czarist regime in Russia and the beginning of the revolution there.

In their publications, the Ghadarites dealt with the problems and issues of the day. In Nia Zamana, they urged all Indians to unite and fight for a new India and spare no sacrifice for the freedom of their land and work tirelessly for liberty and the rights of all. They also engaged in polemics against various organisations and tendencies that they regarded as diversions from the most important task at hand, namely revolution:


It is the duty of all to use every endeavor to improve the condition of India, but it is also necessary to act intelligently...there are several wrong movements in the country which are of no value upon which money, time and moral power are being wasted. The founders of these movements are fools or selfish men, who hope to obtain a reward from Government by misleading the young men of the country...The following are some of the movements:

The Congress: All wise men know that the Congress is an official assembly. The founder of this assembly of ignorant persons was an Englishman named Mr. Hume. Almost every year an Englishman is appointed as its president. Mr. Gokhale, who takes a great part in it, is a titled man and member of the Imperial Legislative Council. Messrs. Mehta and Nauroji are also titled men...In short, all its members are flatterers and timid men. They do not think of measures for the prevention of famine and plague. They have learnt certain sentences which they repeat every year...They beg government to give them their rights merely by begging...These empty shows can not result in preventing famines, reducing taxes, spreading industry, introducing administration of real justice, filling the stomachs of cultivators and removing plague. The appointment of a few young men to Legislative councils can not result in any good to the country, even though they may be able to deliver very eloquent speeches. The acceptance of government service by able Indians only causes great harm to the nation...This is not the way to free country from the calamities which are devastating it...great courage and wisdom are required to awaken the country. The flattery of Englishmen can be of no avail...Congress is in the hands of Englishmen and conducted by them from London...Avoid it...


Religious Movements--Several new creeds and religious associations are coming into existence in India, everyone of which boasts of liberating India from Slavery...Religious disputes among different sections are considered by some as signs of the activity and energy of the Hindu nation...They think that when there is one religion throughout India no foreign nation can aspire to become her ruler. But this is not borne out by history and is opposed to common sense. Every person can have his/her own philosophical or religious principles. Nobody should be compelled to act upon a particular principle and thought...Social organisations should not be based upon religion...India has produced patriots like Ram Singh, Nana Sahib, Tantia, The Rani of Jhansi, Mr. Tilak, Amba Prasad Sufi, and Ajit Singh, but the religion of these men was not the same. So it is not necessary that there should be one religion throughout the country...It is foolish to think that a single religious association would be sufficient for all purposes. Education and social reform should not be based on religion...The prosperity and happiness of a people does not depend on a particular creed...To abandon efforts for liberty and equality and to devote one's entire zeal to religion is to degrade one's self below the status of man. Duty, knowledge and happiness depend on liberty and equality and upon these also depends the deliverance of a country, and in fact of the whole world.


Hindu Sabha--An association called by this name exists in Northern India. Its business is to celebrate certain festivals and to send congratulatory messages to the Lieutenant Governor. The members of this society are rich and titled sycophants...As the supporters of this movement are mostly flatterers and sycophants who have no idea of liberty it can not be conducive to any good to the country.

Temperance--This movement is also unnecessary, for a very low percentage of Hindus drink liquor. It is a foolish movement, for drink is not ruining India. It is not the cause of famine or plague. It does not rob people of their money, nor is it the cause of injustice being done to them. If you really want to do some work, you should work against the British Government: otherwise do not make useless noise.

Protection of Cows--This also is a useless movement, for the Hindus do not kill cows and they have no control over the Muhammadans or the Christians who do so...To obtain liberty should be the first aim of every person and one must have a greater regard for the rights and interests of human beings than for those of the cow...


Education--When the Hindus have nothing else to do they turn their attention to establishing colleges and universities...True education can not be imparted in any country before it has acquired liberty, for in such country all schools of the people possess no rights, their education will be wholly under the control of the government...

Social Reforms--Some Hindus lay great stress upon such minor matters as the age of marriage, the re-marriage of widows, the raising of the depressed classes and so on. These reforms are good but do not limit great movements to these objects...It is not due to any social custom that 75 Lakhs of men have died and that plague and famine visit the country so frequently...Try to include liberty and equality in the politics of your country and then you will find true knowledge and happiness everywhere...


Spread of Hindi Language--The Urdu-Hindi controversy misleads many lovers of the nation. As regards such movements it should be remembered that the proper time for them will be when we have obtained our goal...It is childish to ask government to introduce Hindi in courts or to have Hindi inscriptions on coins and currency notes. Do you consider government courts permanent that we ask government to introduce Hindi there?...whilst there is so much clamour against Urdu, why is there none against English, which is a foreign language?"

The Ghadarites saw social and national emancipation of the peoples of India as the most decisive condition for a prosperous and happy life. Therefore they concentrated all their efforts and energies and urged all the peoples of Hindustan to do so irrespective of their creed, colour, language, or caste. They wanted dignity and honour for all in and outside of Hindustan, and the necessary condition for this was the liberation of India from the rule of the British and their collaborators. To liberate India from the shackles they called upon all the Indians to return to India and overthrow the British rule.


Through the pages of Ghadar Di Goonj they spread their message in poetic form. Ghadar Di Goonj was published in Shahmukhi and Gurmukhi. This poetry was hard hitting and simple:


Kuli Kuli Pukarda Jag Saanun

Saada Jhulda Kitey Nishan Kiyon Nahin

Kikoon Bachangey Sada Ghulam Rahkey

Saanun Rajniti Wala Giyan Kiyon Nahin

Dhayi Totru Kha Gaye Khet Sada

Hindustan da Koi Kisan Kiyon Nahin

(We are called coolies in countries abroad

We do not have a flag of our own

Will we always live the life of slaves?

Why do we not know the science of politics?

A handful people have taken control of our land

Why is not there a caretaker of Hindustan?)

Marna Bhala Ghulami di Zindagi Ton

Nahin Sukhan eh Man Bhulaavney Da

Mulk Jaagyaya Cheen Jo Ghook Suta

Dhol Vajyaya Hind Jagaawanney Da

Saanun Lord Na Panditan Kazian Di

Nahin Shok Hai Berda Dubavaney Da

Jap Jaap Da Waqt Bateet Hoya

Vella Aa Giya Teg Uthavney Da

Pardhkey Ghadr Akhbar Nun Khabar Lagi

Vela Aa Giya Ghadr Machavaney Da

(It is better to die than live a life of servitude

We should never forget this saying

China has awakened from its sleep

Battle drums of Hindustan's awakening are raging

We do not need Pandits or Kazis

As we do not want our ship to sink

The time for prayers and Puja is past

This is the time to pick up the sword

The Ghadar paper is proclaiming

That the time for revolt is here)



It also stated which organisational steps people must take:


Khufiya Raj Societiyan Karo Kaayam

Rall Marhatey Bengali De Yaar Ho Jayo

Hindu Sikh Te Momno Karo Jaldi

Ik Dusrey De Madadgar Ho Jayo

(Establish secret political organizations

Bengalis and Marathis all should get together

Hindu, Sikh and Muslims all should unite

And stand together with each other)

Ghar Ghar Gupti Sabha Banayo

Logan Ko Mantar Sikhlayo

Har Aik Dil Main Jot Jagayo

Binan Joot Yeh Bhoot Na Jaayi

Jaldi Ghadar Macha Diyo Bhai

(Form secret societies in every household

Arouse the people with the Mantra of freedom

Start the spark in every heart

Without force the scourge of British colonialism will not leave

Hurry to the call of revolution)


They described the conditions of Hindustan:


Bhukhey Marnn Bacchey Kaall Vich Sadey

Khatti Khann Saadi Englistan Walley

Kannak Beejkey Khann Nun Jaun Mildey

Paisa Chhadadey Nahin Laggan Valley

Laayiya Tax Firangiyan Bahut Yaaro

Bhukhey Marann Gharib Dukaan Valley

Karo Paltan Nun Khabardar Jaakey

Sutey Payey Kiyon Teg Chalaan Valley

Musalmaan Pathan Balwan Dogar

Singh Soormey Yudh Machaann Valley

Hindustaniyan Morchey Fatey Keetey

Burma, Misar Te Cheen Sudan Valley

(Our children are dying in famines

The English are enjoying the fruit or our toil

We sow wheat but we get barley to eat

We are not left with a penny, all is taken by the tax collectors

The English have levied heavy taxes

Poor shopkeepers are dying of hunger

Go and arouse the army

Why those who wield the sword are asleep?

Brave Muslims, Pathans and Dogras

Valiant Sikhs in the battlefield

Hindustanis fighting on fronts in

Burma, China, Egypt and Sudan)



They exposed the so-called leaders of the Hindustanis, the collaborators of the British:


Jattan Sidhiyan Nun Koi Dosh Nahin

Sadey Leaderan Da Manda Haal Singho

Rai Bandran Mulk Veeran Kita

Piyar Rakhdey Bandran Nal Singho

Sanun Paas Angrez De Bechaya Hai

Aap Mulk De Banney Dalal Singho

(The common folk is not to be blamed

Our 'leaders' are traitors

Rai Bhadurs, copy cats of the British, have ruined our land

They have sold us to the British

And have become pimps of the British)


They called upon the people of Hindustan to see through the illusions spread by the leaders of Indian National Congress such as Gandhi, Nehru and others:


Ghairat Annakh Wala Je Khoon Hunda

Dehli Takht Zaalam Saathon Khasade Naan

Banner, Bipin, Gandhi, Madanmohan Varge

Eh Firangiyaan De Boot Jhasde Naan

(If our leaders had fought for our self respect

We would not have lost our country and rule

The kind of Bannerji, Bipin Chander Pal, Gandhi

And Madanmohan Malviya would not

Have Licked the Boots of the British)

Deputationaan Te Resolutionaan Te

Muft Dhan Kharab Karaaya Kiyon

Naram Dil Congressi Leadraan Nun

Tusin Sutiyo Leader Banyaya Kiyon

(Deputations and resolutions are waste of money

These leaders of Congress who have soft corner

for the British have become leaders

Because you are asleep and not conscious)



They also pointed out the old Indian tradition:


Kade Mangyian Milann Azadiyan Na

Hunde Tarliyan Naal Na Raj Loko

(Freedom is not obtained by begging

By appeals political power is not won)

Karo Na Minnat Ainwe Bano Na Kaiyar

Fardo Talwar Ehnan Nahin Rahnna

Agge Veero Arjiyan Ne Ki Banna Liya

Zalam Firangyian Ne Desh Kha Liya

(Do not petition like cowards

Take the sword and they will run

What have all the petitions done?

Brutal British have plundered our land)



They called upon the Hindustani soldiers to revolt:


Tusin Lardo Jaa Key Khaatar Goriyan De

Singho Bholiyo Karde Khyal Kiyon Nahin

Desan Dujiyan Te Nit Karo Dhaavey

Mulk Apna Laindey Sambhaal Kiyon Nahin

Tibet, Cheen, Africa Nun Fateh Kardey

Dita Dushmanan Hath Dakhal Kiyon Nahin

Utho Azadi Da Lavo Jhaaka

Ralke Kheddey Kiyon Gulal Nahin

(You go and fight for the British

You brave lions just think about it

You fight in far and distant lands

Why not take charge of your own land?

You have subdued Tibet, China, Africa for the British

Why not show your valor to our enemy the British?

Arise and breathe the fresh air of Freedom

Why do you not play Holi with the blood of British?)

Faujan Waliyo Tusaan Di Matt Maari

Lokaan Waste Karo Lardayian

Vairi Tusan Da Gheriya Vich Europe

Vaila Saanbh Layo Dheriyan Dhayian Kiyon

(Soldiers awaken and come to your senses

Why are you fighting for the others, the British

Our enemy is caught in Europe

Take advantage of this situation and revolt)



They also exposed those 'religious leaders' who collaborated with the British in dividing the people on the basis of religion:


Kazi, Pandatan , Ate Giyaniyan Ne

Yudh Karan Da Vachan Sunawnna Na

Bhaunkan Raat Diney Bhukhye Tukrdiaan De

Khali Rahannge Dhidh Bharavanna Na

Haddi Pun Pai Ju Thode Khalsa Ji

Marda Dhan Puja Wala Khawna Na

Vaja Mominan Di Kam Luchyian De

Deel Dol Nun Vaikh Bhul Jawana Na

Saanun Lord Na Amayan Afayan Di

Ilam Ragard Forde Uttey Lawnna Na

(Kazis, Pandits and Giyanis of Gurudwara

Will not speak of fighting the British

They bark like dogs day and night

Looking for the crumbs from the British

If you listen to them your bellies will remain empty

Your bones will be eaten by cancer

If you eat the crumbs that they give

They wear garb of holy men but

Their deeds are those of devil

Do not be fooled by their garb

We do not need useless degrees of BA and MA

We want solutions to our problems)


To organize the Hindustanis abroad and in India for revolution was the chief aim of the Ghadar Party. Ghadar, and other publications of the Yugantar Ashram became tools for this organizing activity. Soon there were Ghadar Party branches in China, Malaya, Siam, Europe, the Philippines, Africa, Hongkong, Singapore, Panama, Argentina, Brazil, Iran, Afghanistan, Japan, Russia, amongst other locations. Wherever there were Hindustanis, there were Ghadar Party branches. By 1916, it is estimated that one million copies of Ghadar were published per week.

Special issues of Ghadar were also printed in Nepali, Bengali, Pashto, Gujrati, as well as many other languages. The British government used every means to stop the circulation of Ghadar and other publications of the Yugantar Ashram, mainly to stop it from reaching India, but they were not successful. The Ghadarites always found ways and means of distributing their publications in India in spite of proscription and efforts by the British to stop the distribution of Ghadar.

The British Government also tried with all its might to slander, suppress, and eradicate the Ghadar Movement abroad by conniving with the Governments of Canada and the USA and by recruiting spies and their agents such as Hopkinson and others to closely watch the activities of the Ghadarites. For this purpose they also recruited a temple priest in San Francisco and some Granthis in Gurudwaras. As a result of this pressure, Lala Hardyal was arrested on March 25, 1914. Because of Hopkinson's reposts, he was forced to leave the USA in April 1914.



Return to India.


The Ghadarites decided that the time was ripe to organize a revolt in the army against the British, as the first world war was approaching and it was only through armed force that the British were able to subjugate Hindustan. With men and materiel flowing out of India to aid in the war effort, the forces of occupation were perched precariously, depleted and vulnerable to attack. Therefore they decided to organize and return to Hindustan. In August 1914 huge rallies and public meetings were organized, where it was decided that all the Hindus abroad should return to Hindustan and participate in the armed revolt against the British. The Executive Committee of the Ghadar Party met and decided to call upon all the Ghadarites everywhere to return to India and organize the revolt. Kartar Singh Sarabha, one of the youngest Ghadarites, was a student at Berkeley and left right away with other Ghadarites. The president of Ghadar Party, Sohan Singh Bhakhna, who was in Japan, also organized to return home with others. Similarly, the Ghadarites planned to return from other parts of the world. They left a few organizers abroad to carry on the work. They worked out the following plan:


1. To contact all the revolutionary groups in India on their return and unite with them.

2. The Ghadarite organizers should travel from village to village and prepare the people for the revolt against the British.

3. To propagate amongst the soldiers in the cantonments and arouse them to revolt against the British. A special committee was elected for this work.

4. For acquisition of weapons, a special group was organized.

5. A special group to carry on the work of publishing literature to distribute amongst the people and soldiers.

6. To further strengthen relations with all those movements who were fighting against colonialism for their national liberation and seek their help.

7. To seek possibilities of help from Germany and Turkey who were fighting against the British.



To get help from enemies of the British, Barakatullah was sent to Kabul to organize this work. Kapur Singh Mohi met with Sun Yat Sen to seek the help of the Chinese revolutionaries. Sohan Singh Bhakhna also met with the German Counselor in Tokyo in this regard. Teja Singh Sutantar had joined the Turkish Military Academy for military training to prepare for the revolutionary storms. Ghadarites returned to India through sea and land. The Komagata Maru, SS Korea, and the Namsang were some of the ships on which thousands of Ghadarite returned home:

"The most important vessel to leave San Francisco was the SS Korea, which left for Hong Kong on the 29th August...Before the ship left San Francisco Maulvi Barkatullah, Ram Chand and Bhagwan Singh came aboard and gave the following advice, 'your duty is clear. Go to India and stir up rebellion in every corner of the country. Arms will be provided for you on your arrival in India."


It is estimated that close to 8000 Ghadarites returned to Hindustan to aid in the revolt by 1916. In a speech in Dehra Dun Bhai, Parmanand declared that five thousand Ghadarites had returned with him.

The British authorities knew about the plans of the Ghadarites. They had also seen the Declaration of War in Ghadar and also had information through their agents. They issued an ordinance in September 1914, according to which provincial governments were empowered to intern people entering India from abroad even if they were Indian citizens. Bengal and Punjab governments were given these powers first because a great deal of ships on which the Ghadarites were returning were to dock at Calcutta. They also established a detention centre in Ludhiana where those passengers who were suspected of being Ghadarites were interned. The passengers of Komagatu Maru were the first victims of this ordinance. Sohan Singh Bhakhna and others were arrested from the ship Namsang and brought to Ludhiana. Ghadarites traveling in Tosha Maru were also arrested and taken to different jails such as Montgomery and Multan. But the Ghadarites made it through Colombo, Madras, and Bombay.

In India the Ghadarites developed close working relationships with other revolutionary groups such as the revolutionaries of Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, etc., who later formed the Revolutionary Party of India which declared in 1917:

"The immediate object of the revolutionary party in the domain of politics is to establish a Federal Republic of the United States of India by an organized armed revolution. The final constitution of this Republic shall be framed and declared at a time when the representatives of India shall have the power to carry out their decisions. But the basic principles of this Republic shall be universal suffrage, and the abolition of all systems which make the exploitation of man by man possible;...In this Republic the electors shall have the right to recall their representatives if so desired, otherwise the democracy shall become a mockery. In this Republic, the legislature shall have the power to control the executives and replace them whenever necessity will arise.

The Revolutionary Party is not national but international in the sense that its ultimate object is to bring harmony in the world by respecting and guaranteeing the diverse interests of the different nations; it aims not at competition but at cooperation between the different nations and states, and in this respect it follows the footsteps of the great Indian Rishis and of Bolshevik Russia in the modern age. Good for humanity is no vain and empty word for Indian revolutionaries."


Vishnu Ganesh Pingley, Kartar Singh Sarabha, Ras Bihari Bose, Bhai Parmanand, Hafiz Abdullah, Sachinder Nath Sanyal, and others played very important roles in developing these close relationships with other revolutionary groups. They aimed to overthrow the British rule by force of arms and build a new society. For this aim they were willing to unite and work together with all those forces that were working for this common aim of liberating Hindustan.

Amritsar was established as the control centre for the activity of the Ghadar party which had to be changed to Lahore on February 6,1915 due to security considerations. After analyzing all the reports from the organizers amongst the army and civilians, it was decided on February 12,1915 that the date of uprising will be February 21,1915. The plan was to occupy the cantonments of Mian Mir, Ferozepur, Meerut, Lahore, and Delhi and proclaim the Republic of India. Garrisons in Kohat, Bannu and Dinapur were also to revolt on the same day. Kartar Singh Sarabha was to take control of Ferozepur and Pingle to march to Delhi from Meerut with the 128th Battalion.

Dr. Mathura Singh was sent to the frontier areas of the Northwest to organize the Afridis and others. Nidhan Singh Chugha, Gurmukh, Singh and Harnam Singh were sent to Jhelum, Rawalpindi, and Hoti Mardan. Parmanand went to Peshawar. Others were sent to Ambala, Meerut, Lucknow, Allahabad, Benares, Dinapur, and Faizabad to raise the banner of revolt. They also decided that the flag of this revolt and republic would be a tricolor of Red, Green and Yellow with two swords crossing in the centre. The organization of revolt in the eastern part of India, such as in Bengal and Assam, was to be coordinated by the Bengali revolutionaries. The rebellion was to engulf the British Empire from Peshawar to Hongkong.

Unfortunately the British government got wind of the uprising through their agents. The Ghadarites changed the date of uprising to February 19 instead of February 21, after they determined that the authorities knew of their plans. But the British authorities acted swiftly and disarmed the Indian troops in the above mentioned garrisons and interned them. Several leaders of Ghadar Party and organizers were arrested and imprisoned in Lahore; 82 of them were charged for sedition in Lahore Conspiracy Case on April 26,1916 and 17 Ghadarites were declared absconding and international non-bailable warrants for their arrest were issued.

Michael O'Dwyer, the governor of Punjab, asked the British government to remove all provisions of appeal in the legal provisions of the courts. The British government brought in "Defence of India Rule" to carry out summary trials of the Ghadarites. This ordinance was opposed by all the Indian members of the legislative assembly. A special tribune was set up which held its hearings in camera in a Lahore jail. On September 13,1915, 24 Ghadarites were sentenced to death and the rest were given life imprisonment. This judgment of the tribunal raised a wave of protest and demonstrations against the British all over India. As a result the Viceroy Lord Hardinge himself intervened and converted the death sentence of 17 Ghadarites into life imprisonment and reduced the term of imprisonment for 7 Ghadarites. On November 16, seven Ghadarites were hanged.

After Lahore, arrests took place in Benaras and Delhi. Sachinder Nath Sanyal was exiled to Andaman jail known as Kala Pani and others were given varying rigorous sentences by the special tribunal. The Tribunal declared that they were all part of the same movement with its centre in Lahore.

The Ghadarites did not get disheartened by this set back and continued carrying on their work. Arrests and imprisonments followed them. In the second Lahore Conspiracy case, 102 Ghadarites were tried. This case began on October 25, 1915 and sentences were handed down on March 30, 1916. Seven Ghadarites were sentenced to death, 45 were given life sentences and the rest were given rigourous imprisonment varying from 8 months to four years. Eleven were let free.

Several Ghadarites were hanged, sentenced for life and given rigorous imprisonment in the third, fourth and fifth Lahore Conspiracy Cases. According to one estimate, a total of 145 Ghadarites were hanged, 308 were given sentences longer than 14 years.

Outside India the Ghadarites had organized revolts amongst the Indian soldiers. They started organizing the soldiers of the 26th Punjabi regiment in Hongkong. This regiment had been brought in 1912 to suppress the Chinese democratic revolution led by Sun Yat Sen. The British officer could go home on vacations but the Hindustani soldiers had to remain on duty. Besides the 26th Punjabi, the 25th Punjabi, 126th Baluchi and 50th Artillery was also stationed here. The Ghadar Party had carried out work amongst them. Especially after the Komagata Maru incident, they had a great deal of anti-British sentiment and Ghadar was regularly distributed amongst them. On June 14, several of the soldiers in these regiments were arrested and court-martialed for distributing Ghadar and sent back to India and imprisoned.

In Singapore two regiments, Fifth Holly Light and Malaya State Guide, were garrisoned. The Ghadarites started their work in 1914 in Singapore and through Ghadar, called upon the soldiers to revolt against the British and not participate in the war on the British side. The British authorities, suspecting something was amiss, transferred the Malaya State Guide to Penang. On the night of February 15,1914, the soldiers were ordered to deposit their ammunition and arms in the depot. As a result the officers refused to obey this order and shot several of the officers. The British reinforcements arrived by the 18th of February and crushed this rebellion. Two leaders of the mutiny were hanged and 38 were shot dead, and on the side of the British 8 officers, 9 soldiers and 17 civilians were killed.

In Rangoon in January 1915, the 130th Baluchi regiment revolted. They did not want to fight in the war for the British. On January 15, 200 soldiers of this regiment were court-martialed. Four soldiers were hanged, 69 were given life imprisonment and 126 were given rigorous imprisonment for varying terms. Pandit Sohan Lal Pathak, one of the outstanding leaders of the Ghadar Party was hanged on February 10,1916 in Mandalay jail for inciting rebellion against the British rule. At his martyrdom another Ghadarite Amar Singh wrote:


Chadha Mansoor Phansi Par Pukara Ishk Bazon Ko

Yeh Beeda Hai Tabahi Ka Uthaye Jiska Ji Chaahey

(From the Gallows Mansoor called those who dared to love

This path of self-sacrifice, those who march on it, should do so with complete free will)


Burma had also become an important centre of the Ghadarites. Several Ghadarites were tried and sentenced in two Mandalay Conspiracy Cases.

In December 1915, a government-in-exile of Free Hindustan was established in Kabul, Afghanistan, with Raja Mohinder Pratap as President, Maulavi Barkatullah, Prime Minister, Maulavi Abaidullah Sindhi, Home Minister, Maulavi Bashir, War Minister and Champakaran Pillai, Foreign Minister. All of them were members of the Ghadar Party except Raja Mahendra Pratap. This government-in-exile carried on work on various fronts including the diplomatic fronts by establishing relationships with anti-British governments such as Turkey, Germany, Japan, China, etc.

The Ghadarites also organized the Hindustani prisoners of war in Turkey, Germany, Mesopotamia, and the Middle East. The Ghadarites in Turkey fought against the British in Iran, Baluchistan and Turkey. In Constantinople, they decided that they will attack the British soldiers in Iran, move on to Baluchistan and then enter Punjab from there. They also worked amongst the Hindustani soldiers in the British army in Iran and Iraq, especially in Basra and Bushahir. It is here that the Indian Independence Army was organized by the Ghadarites to invade British India from Iran. Amba Prasad Sufi was the leader of the Ghadar Party in Shiraz. He was joined by Kedar Nath, Rishi Kesh Letha and Amin Chaudhry. This army of the Ghadarites reached the borders of Baluchistan where the British army was very weak. General Sykes tried to recruit the help of the Baluchi tribal chiefs. This Ghadarite army attacked the frontier city of Karman and arrested the British Counsel and turned Karman into its base of operations.

The British pressed into their service the Aga Khan and his brother. Aga Khan's brother was captured by the Ghadarite army and shot dead. The army of the Ghadarites also defeated the British forces in the province of Sistan in Afghanistan. The Ghadar army chased the British forces into the Karamshir area of Baluchistan. Here they heard the news and declaration of the Free Hindustan by the government-in-exile headed by Mohendra Pratap. From here the Ghadar army advanced towards Karachi and took over the coastal towns of Gawador and Dawar. The Baluch chief of Bampur declared his independence from the British rule and joined the Ghadar forces. Meanwhile, however, the war in Europe took a turn for the better for the British. Turkey was defeated and Baghdad came under British control, cutting the supply lines of for the Ghadar army, which finally led to its defeat. They retreated to regroup in Shiraz. The British army, reinforced by their victory in Turkey and Iraq, attacked Shiraz. The Ghadar army fought very bravely but was defeated. Amba Prasad Sufi, the leader of the Ghadarites was killed in this battle. The Ghadarites carried on Guerrilla warfare along with the Iranian partisans but when the Iranian patriots were defeated, they left Iran in 1919.


Ghadar was sent through China to Russia and then through Russia, it used to go through Iran and Mesopotamia to the Indian troops stationed there. The 15th Lancers, stationed in Basra revolted and 64 soldiers were court-martialed. Similarly, the 24th Punjabi and 22nd Pahari also revolted.

Before returning to India in 1914-15, the Ghadar Party had elected a new collective to carry on the work. The following were elected to the executive committee:


1. Bhai Bhagwan Singh---President

2. Bhai Santokh Singh---General Secretary

3. Munshi Ram---Treasurer

4. Ram Chand---Manager of the paper

5.Gobind Bihari Lal---Editor

6.Godha Ram---Urdu Editor

7.Gopal Singh Sohi---Punjabi Editor

8.Hari Singh Fakir---Assistant Editor

9.Sundar Singh Ghali---Office Secretary

10. Ram Singh Dhuleta---Staff

11.Mahadev Aboj---Staff


13. Nidhan Singh---Staff

14. Bishan Singh Hindi---Staff



As it has been mentioned, one million copies of the Ghadar were published every week by 1916. On January 22,1917, the movement was officially registered as the Hindustan Ghadar Party in San Francisco to comply with the American law, with its headquarters at 5 Wood Street.

The Ghadarites were defeated but they were not crushed. They regrouped and decided to carry on their work to fight another battle and yet another until Hindustan was free. On the international scene, the defeat of Turkey and Germany had created new difficulties and an unfavorable situation. The end of war had also given rise to another event of great international significance: the Bolshevik revolution in Russia, which had tremendous effect on the Ghadar Party's work and direction. The news of the triumph of the workers' and peasants' revolution in Russia inspired the people of Hindustan tremendously. There was great enthusiasm on the part of workers, peasants, intellectuals, and enlightened individuals to find out more and in detail about the achievements of this revolution. The Ghadarites had been working closely with all the revolutionaries internationally such as the Irish revolutionaries, the Chinese revolutionaries, the Russian revolutionaries, as well as with the Egyptian, African, Latin American, and Algerian revolutionaries. They had also been influenced by socialist ideas and movements, and had close working relations with the trade union movement. In North America they had aclose association with the IWW. Agnes Smedley, Emma Goldman, Mary Lyon Howzer, Mrs. Carrington Lewis, Freida Birch, and Chas Lester were some of the famous socialist and trade union leaders with whom the Ghadarites had good working relations. These leaders of the working class and democratic public opinion had assisted the Ghadarites tremendously in their fight in the courts of Seattle and San Francisco. Agnes Smedley and her friends including Tarak Nath Das, formed Friends of Freedom of India in 1919, to popularize and support the cause of the Ghadarites in North America. Friends of Freedom of India, had many socialists, communists, and labor organizers as well as well-known writers and artists such as Upton Sinclair. Tarak Nath's paper, Free Hindustan, which was published in Seattle in 1907, declared in bold letters on its masthead, "Workers of the World Unite, You Have Nothing to Lose But Chains."


The triumph of the Bolshevik revolution naturally attracted their attention and drew them to the Soviet Union and its experience, just as the French revolution, American revolution, and the Mexican revolution of 1911 had drawn their attention earlier. They were anxious to meet and learn from the leaders of the October revolution who had overthrown the rule of exploiters, and who had established a state of the exploited and the oppressed. The Ghadarites called the Russian revolutionaries the Russian Ghadarites and considered them as their Ghadarite brothers fighting for the same cause of national and social liberation. In turn the Bolsheviks and the newly formed Soviet state had declared unconditional support for the people of Hindustan in their struggle against the British colonialism. Several Ghadarites had been in Russia during the period of the Bolshevik revolution and the Russian revolutionaries had assisted them in distributing Ghadar. By now these revolutionaries had succeeded in overthrowing their oppressors and formed their own state and were charting a new path hitherto unknown. Ghadarites were greatly excited by these prospects.


The Ghadar Party sent Rattan Singh and Santokh Singh as its representatives to the Soviet Union to learn from the Bolsheviks. Talso attended the 4th Congress of the Communist International (Comintern) as the Hindustani representatives:

"The IV Congress of the Communist International, which met in Moscow in November 1922, was attended by two representatives deputed by the Ghadar Party in California, one being Santokh Singh as a 'delegate from India' and the other Rattan Singh. Both of these men were thorough going Ghadar supporters."

..."Santokh Singh it may be said , had also attended the Second World Congress of the R.I.L.U., held in Moscow in November 1922...at a formal meeting of the Ghadar Party to welcome him, he said that Russia, America and Turkey had secured freedom through revolution, and that India would have to do the same."


The fourth congress of the Comintern sent a telegram to the All Indian Trade Union Congress, Lahore, and had advised them;

"No amelioration of living conditions is possible while imperialist exploitation exists. It is for this reason that you will play an important part in the struggle for national independence. Prepare for this historic role. The advanced proletariat of fifty-two countries represented at this Congress is entirely on your side. Beware of the false friendship and the misleading advice of labour leaders that are subservient to imperialism."


Comintern also pointed out:

"Only an agrarian revolution committed to the expropriation of the great landowners can arouse the vast peasant masses, who will be a key factor in the struggle against imperialism. The bourgeois nationalists fear of agrarian demands and their efforts to water them down in every possible way (as in India, Persia, Egypt) are an indication of the close connection between the native bourgeoisie and the great feudal bourgeois landowners, and the former's intellectual and political dependence on the latter. The revolutionary forces must use these hesitations and uncertainties to make a thorough, ongoing criticism and exposure of the compromises made by the bourgeois leaders of the nationalist movement. It is precisely these compromisers that hinder the organization and rallying of the working masses, as is shown by the bankruptcy of the tactic of passive resistance."


Rattan Singh and Santokh Singh had the opportunity to exchange opinions and views with the Bolshevik leaders including Lenin. They were deeply and profoundly influenced by the fight that the Soviet Union was waging to consolidate the gains of revolution and the fight that it was carrying on against the 18 imperialist countries including, the US, Britain, Canada, France, and Germany, who had invaded the Soviet Union. They visited various parts of Soviet Union, met with workers, peasants, and intellectuals, and were convinced that the path that was being charted out in the Soviet Union would be helpful in the national and social emancipation of India. They were deeply moved by the unconditional support of the Soviet Union and Soviet Ghadarites (Bolsheviks) for the emancipation of Hindustan.


In India after the war, a great revolutionary upsurge had gained momentum. This movement had become a forest fire in Punjab and Northwestern Provinces due to the repression of the Rowlatt Act and Crawling orders. The British government had carried out massacres in Jalianwala Bagh in Amritsar and strafed with Royal Air Force planes in Gujjranwala, killing hundreds of people and injuring thousands. In Afghanistan, Ammanullah had declared Afghanistan's independence from the British and the anti-colonial movement of Khilafat in Turkey stirred them a great deal. Barkatullah, a Ghadarite, and Ammanullah had collaborated greatly in their anti-British activities in Afghanistan. With Ammanullah at the head of Independent Afghanistan, gave tremendous boost and status to the work of Ghadar Party. The news of the Bolshevik revolution and the state of workers and peasants had tremendously inspired these insurgent people. They were not cowed down by the repression of the British. After the British had killed several people in a firing in Lahore one of the poets expressed the sentiments of this movement in the following lines:


Shahid ki jo maut hai wo kaum ki hayat hai

Shahid ka jo hai lahu wo kaum ki zakat hai

Katain jo chand daaliyan to chaman ho hara bhara

Katain jo chand gardanain to kaum ki hayat hai

(The death of the martyrs is life of the nation

The blood of the martyrs is the offering of the nation

Few branches fall so that the garden can bloom

Few heads fall so that the nation can have life)


Rattan Singh, Santokh Singh and Barkatullah were representatives of the Ghadar Party who traveled in various countries to consolidate and strengthen the work of the Ghadar Party. Rattan Singh traveled to India, America, Latin America, Europe, Russia and the Middle East. Teja Singh Sutantar was leading the Ghadar Party in Turkey. Santokh Singh undertook the work of organizing the Kirti group of Communists in India and the publication of the paper Kirti, "Rattan Singh while still in America, had suggested the starting of the Kirti and in his first letter wrote...'business could only be successful if the Kirti was successful...we are trying to send money soon for this paper.'" In January 1926 the Kirti was advertised as follows:

"This journal will be the voice of Indian workers in America and Canada and will be dedicated to the sacred memory of those heroes and martyrs who awakened sleeping India...In February following the first issue appeared, bearing on its title page the picture of a dead labourer lying on his funeral pyre, amidst factories, fields, etc.,...the sense of his labours when alive and surrounded by tools such as the hammer and pickax, the whole obviously intended to convey the idea that the deceased had succumbed to the hard tasks he had to perform during his lifetime. The paper has ever since its appearance consistently advocated the cause and ideals of the Ghadar conspirators of 1914 and 1915, it has glorified the Babbar Akalis as martyrs and heroes...The magazine has been welcomed by the Hindustan Ghadar, which issued an appeal for subscriptions for it."


Another intelligence report points out:

"the Ghadar Party in 1925 established a Workers and Peasant Party (Kirti Kisan Party) in the Punjab. Its organ, the Kirti, a purely communistic production, was subsidized by the Ghadar Party in America. The aims of the Kirti Kisan Party were (1) to achieve complete independence from British Imperialism by every possible method in order to liberate the workers and peasants from political, economic and social serfdom and to establish their democratic power; and (2) to organize the workers and peasants. The Kirti Kisan Party was a counter part in India of the Ghadar Party organization in America and it professed communist creed."


The Kirti Party also organized the youth and had close relations with Naujawan Bharat Sabha, with Bhagat Singh as one of its leaders. Bhagat Singh also worked for some time on the Kirti Urdu edition. Bhagat Singh's uncle, Ajit Singh, who was in exile was very closely connected to the Ghadarites in Argentina and Brazil. At one time it was intended by the Ghadar Party to invite Ajit Singh to be the editor of Ghadar. In Britain the Ghadar Party could not exist legally because the British had outlawed it in their empire. Therefore Rattan Singh founded the Indian Workers Association with the same aims of the Ghadar Party.


Barkatullah played a very important role in the Muslim parts of the Soviet Union working with the Hijris, and also cooperating with the Bolsheviks. After the declaration of Afghanistan's independence, Ammanullah sent an official delegation with Barkatullah at its head to Soviet Union. This mission known as the Barkatullah mission was received very warmly by the Soviet government. A treaty of peace and friendship was signed between the two governments. Barkatullah went to the Soviet Union during the civil war, and exposed the dastardly deeds of the British and the French amongst the eastern regions of the Soviet Union, where the colonial powers were using their tested weapon of divide and rule on the religious basis by inciting the Muslim inhabitants against the gains of the revolution and the Soviet Union. Barkatullah's work in the Soviet Union in support of the revolution and its gains was an expression of the Ghadar Party's deep-seated internationalism. As a result of their internationalism, they had developed close ties with other revolutionaries and revolutionary governments such as the government of Ammanullah in Afghanistan, Fakhri Pasha in Turkey and the Soviet government. Barkatullah also attended the congress of the League Against Imperialism in Brussels in 1928 as a delegate, which passed a resolution on India stating:

"The general council of the League against Imperialism declares its complete solidarity with the Indian peoople in the latter's opposition to the British government's proposal of a commission of the British Parliament to investigate India's fitness for self government.


The appointment of this commission of the exploiters to the grant 'reforms' to the peoples whom they exploit is nothing but an impudent farce, and the general council heartily supports the Indian national movement's resolve to boycott the commission.


The general council notes with disgust that the British Labour party leaders and members of parliament have made common cause with the British imperialists on this question, by supporting the conservative government's proposals of a commission an by endorsing without any but the weakest support to comrade Saklatvala in Parliament, the participation of two labour representatives.


The general council declares that this open united front of the British capitalists and British labour leaders in defence of British imperialism which has no parallel since the black days of August 1914, is as harmful to the workers of the oppressor countries, since they are exploited by the same ruling class.


The league against Imperialism pledges the wholehearted support of all its adherent organisations and sections to the Indian national movement in this struggle. At the same time it urges all genuine enemies of imperialist oppression in India to concentrate on rallying the masses around the positive slogan of complete independence for India - the sole real threat to the power of British imperialism...and on election of a constituent assembly to consider the entire question of the political future of India, which should be prepared by the creation of local committees, mass demonstrations and the widest possible participation of the masses of people generally."


Rattan Singh in this period traveled on an Afghan passport issued by the Afghan government as the British government had impounded his passport. During his travels Rattan Singh visited the branches of Ghadar Party in Mexico, Cuba, Central America, Panama, Brazil and Argentina and met with Bujha Singh and Bhagat Singh Bilga. After his visit to Argentina, it was decided that Bujha Singh would take the first group of Ghadarites from Argentina back to India via Moscow. They were to receive political training and education in Moscow. The Ghadar Party had issued a second "Return to India Call" and said that the Ghadarites should return to India via Moscow. The intelligence bureau reported that, "there are at present 35 students of the Ghadar Party undergoing training in Moscow."


The Kirti Party had its independent and separate organization from other communist groups in India and had direct links with the Comintern. They also published Lal Jhanda and Lal Dhandora papers besides Kirti. They assigned Kisan Sabhas to organize the peasantry and the trade unions of workers in towns and cities. Overseas the Hindustan Ghadar propagated the cause of the liberation of India and popularized the work of the Kirti Party and other revolutionaries. To lead the work of the Kirti Party, a revolutionary committee was elected with Santokh Singh its secretary, Karam Singh Cheema, Rattan Singh, Udham Singh Kasel and Gurmukh Singh as members. The last three members were in exile and could not enter India and were based abroad. One by one they would come to India secretly while others traveled to the Ghadar Party headquarters in San Francisco, as well as other parts of the world including the Soviet Union.


On the first anniversary of the Kirti paper this revolutionary committee pointed out in its report:

1. The objective for which the publication of Kirti was started, we have made all the efforts to fulfill that goal.

2. The objective of Kirti is neither Swaraj or Home Rule but complete independence of Hindustan and rule of workers and peasants. We stand on this unwaveringly and will stand for these objectives in future.

3. India can achieve complete independence by those means only by which other enslaved countries have gained their independence. It can not be achieved by any other means such as boycott, Satyagrah etc. We stand for revolutionary methods and will do so in future.

4. In Kirti's view the struggle of the people of Hindustan for liberation and socialism is a link in the chain of the struggle of all the peoples of the world for liberation. Therefore we will inform all the revolutionaries of the world about the struggles of Hindustan's people and inform the people of Hindustan of their struggles as we are part of one struggle. In the past one year we have been writing about the liberation struggle of the people of China and Afghanistan.We have written about the coal miners struggle in Britain, danger of fascism in Italy and the invasion of Abyssinia by fascist Italy and other international events. In future we will continue to do so.

5. A workers' and peasants' state has come into being in Russia and the people of Russia are building a new system and are marching towards socialism. We have provided full information to our readers about these matters and we will continue to do so in future.

6. Martyrs of a nation are its fundamental heritage. We have been writing about their deeds and life. In coming times we will continue to write about the Ghadarite martyrs of 1914-1916, including Babbar Akali and other young revolutionaries who have sacrificed their lives for our nation.


In 1929 a great wave of peasant unrest gripped Hindustan from Kanya Kumari to Kashmir. Also, many workers strikes were taking place at this time. Demonstrations and rallies against British rule were being organized all over the country. Bhagat Singh and his comrades had thrown a bomb in the Assembly to awaken the masses. The Army refused to open fire on a demonstration in Peshawar. The whole country was in fervor. The Ghadarites of the Kirti Party tirelessly organized against the British rule and guided the people. They were also instrumental in organising the Naujawan Sabha led by Bhagat Singh. The constitution of the Naujavan Bharat Sabha defined the main aims and objectives of the Sabha as follows:


1. To establish a complete independent republic of labourers and peasants throughout India.

2. To inspire in the hearts of the young men of the country the feelings of patriotism and spirit of sacrifice for forming a united nationality in India.

3. To create the spirit of general toleration among the public considering religion as a matter of personal belief of man's and to act upon the same fully.

4. To show interest for and help every economic and social movement which is quite free from communal feelings and which is calculated to take us near our goal to establish a complete independent republic of labourers and peasants throughout India.

5.To organise labourers and peasants


Along with Kisan Sabhas, Naujawan Sabha, workers and other people were in the front ranks of these agitations and struggles. They published in Kirti the full text of the statement issued by Bhagat Singh and Dutt in their defence. Kirti fully supported the revolutionary youth and at the same time it advised them through its pages against the dangers of individual terrorism. In 1928 Abdul Majid started Mahnatkash which was also an organ of the Kirti Party.

In March 1931, Rajguru, Sukhdev, and Bhagat Singh were hanged by the British. This further fueled the fire against the British. The Kirti Party decided to bring out a weekly paper Mazdoor Kisan (Workers and Peasants) in Hindi and Urdu. It organized conferences and rallies along with Nau Jawan Sabha in Shekhupur, Multan, Gujaranwala, Layalpur, Rohtak, Jullundhur and other places. The writings of Ferozuddin Mansur and Munshi Ahmed Din, dealt with the burning questions of the day. Mazdoor Kisan also published the statements and speeches of communists arrested in the Meerut Conspiracy Case and also exposed all those who collaborated with the British. They openly opposed the Communal Suffrage.


In 1942 the Kirti party merged with the Communist Party of India feeling the need for unity of all the communists. After the partition of the Hindustan and transfer of the power to the Congress government, the Nehru government declared the Communist Party illegal. The communists had to go underground. This was the reward that the workers, peasants and communists had harvested. The communists had to go underground, and they thought about the wisdom of policy that the leadership of the CPI was following by supporting the Congress and Nehru government. In 1948, the Ghadarites who had joined the CPI in 1942 formed their own Lal Party (Red Party), because they did not feel that the leadership of the CPI was revolutionary, instead of revolution they felt that the leadership of the CPI was tailing behind the leadership of Congress. The Ghadarites wanted national liberation with social revolution. The leaders of both Congress and the CPI were interested in national liberation without social revolution. They were on the social democratic path. They wanted to manage the British system with Indian faces. Ghadarites were also opposed to the partition of the country on a religious basis, whereas both Congress and CPI were in the favour of dividing the country on the basis of religion and the creation of Pakistan. The Kirti party had vehemently opposed the Pakistan Resolution of the CPI in 1944, which divided the country on the basis of religion.

They also supported the Telangana uprising and the peasants uprising in Punjab and Eastern Punjab States Union (PEPSU), while the leadership of CPI was opposed to both of these struggles.

In 1952 the Ghadarites of the Lal Party once again rejoined the CPI after the change of the leadership of CPI, hoping that the new leadership would carry out the social revolution to the end and not tail behind Congress and Nehru. But these hopes were to be dashed to the ground. In 1958, the communists were elected in Kerala and formed the government and attempted to carry out serious land reforms. The Congress government headed by the Nehru government dissolved the Kerala government in 1959 at the insistence of the Landlords of Kerala. The period of 1960-1964 saw one of the worst famines in India with millions of people starving to death. It created a great wave of discontent in the country leading to the defeat of the Congress party in the 1967 general elections in many states. A peasant uprising broke out in Naxalbari, which found its resonance in many parts of the country. Baba Sohan Singh Bhakhna, the first president of the Ghadar Party declared that the aims and objectives for which the Ghadar Party had been formed in 1913 and for which the Ghadarites had made countless sacrifices. Those aims, namely the social revolution in India had not been carried out. Baba Bujha Singh, a Ghadarite who was one of the leaders of the Ghadar Party in Argentina had returned to India via Moscow, echoed his sentiment and threw his full support behind the Naxalbari uprising. And when the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) was formed, he was elected its leader in Punjab at the age of 78.


The Indian patriots, democrats and enlightened people abroad also echoed Baba Sohan Singh Bhakhna's call and fully supported the Naxalbari uprising. In Britain the Indian Workers Association had continued its work. A meeting was held in London around the time of the "Necessity for Change Conference" in November 1967 and it was decided to reactivate the Hindustani Ghadar Party in support of Naxalbari. An ad hoc committee was formed to reorganize the Ghadar Party for the social revolution in India. Manchanda was elected its president and Hardial Bains was elected to be in charge of work in North America. When the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) was formed in 1969, the Ghadar Party became its external wing. The Ghadarites were advised by CPI(M-L) and Charu Mazumdar, its General Secretary, to propagate the cause of the Indian revolution in the countries where they were resident. Ghadarites defended the cause of the Indian revolution through their paper Chingari and also organized people against racist attacks in Canada and Britain in close connection with the Canadian and British working class:

"There were two reasons why the Ghadar Party was founded in 1913; first to achieve the true aspirations of the Indian people to defeat the British Colonialism in India and to build a free and prosperous India, and secondly to fight racial discrimination in North America and other places where fascists organized by the British Colonialists were bullying the Indian residents...The two reasons on which the Ghadar Party was founded still remain. India is yet to gain her true independence and the Indians residing in the USA, Canada, Britain and other places have yet to achieve racial equality. It is for this that we have organized the new Ghadar Party."


The Ghadarites once again raised the slogan, "Blame the Canadian State for Racist Attacks", "Unite with the Canadian People to Fight Against Racist Attacks" and they also followed the slogan "Self-Defence is the Only Way." Amongst the students and intelligentsia the Indian Progressive Study Groups came into being in Canada and the US as part of this trend. At the time of the founding of the Ghadar Party, resolutions were passed in support of the Palestinian people, people of Indo-China, against US Imperialism, black people in their struggle against racism in the USA, and the people of Canada and Quebec in their struggle against the domination of USA. They also developed close working relations with the revolutionaries from Asia, Africa, and Latin America where great uprisings had taken place. Ghadarites considered liberation of India as an integral part of the liberation of the world's people and supported the just struggles of all the peoples for liberation, dignity and honour whether in the Eastern or Western blocks. They participated in international gatherings and conferences to exchange views and learn from the experience of other revolutionaries. In this context the Internationalist Rally held in Montreal in April1978 was very important in which revolutionaries from all continents participated. The new Ghadarites like their earlier predecessors were harassed, persecuted and attacked for their views, convictions and activities. The diplomatic offices of the Indian government also collaborated with the Canadian government in their persecution. Harsh Chaddha, a young man in his twenties was deported from Canada for his political activities. Hardial Bains was not given Canadian citizenship for more than two decades because of his political views, was denied entry into the United States, and the Indian government withdrew his Passport in 1975 which was never reinstated, while they were giving calls for his deportation to India. Like the old Ghadarites, the new Ghadarites were not frightened by these threats and attacks. They carried on doing their work.


After the assassination of Charu Mazumdar and other revolutionary leadership of the CPI(M-L), the CPI(M-L) split into various factions. The Ghadar Party worked closely with all the groups who aimed to bring about social revolution. A delegation of the Ghadar Party participated in a conference of CPI(M-L) in India in 1973 to discuss various problems of the Indian revolution. The Ghadarites emphasized the need for all revolutionaries to unite for the cause of Indian revolution.

In 1973 the then Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, came to visit Britain and North America. The Ghadarites organized rallies and demonstrations against her visit in cooperation with several other organizations and groups condemning the torture and killing of thousands of youth branded as terrorists and extremists in false police encounters in Punjab, Bengal, Bihar, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kashmir, etc. The Ghadarites through the pages of Chingari, Lok Awaz, and other publications brought to light the violation of human rights, political persecution, killing and torture of the Naxalites, youth, and others.


In 1975, Indira Gandhi declared a state of emergency, which resulted in the dissolving of Parliament. A widespread movement in India and abroad started against this naked dictatorship. Workers, women, peasants, students, shopkeepers all were galvanized into a big storm. The CPI supported the declaration of emergency while there were others who wanted to oppose Emergency in order to come to power themselves. The Ghadarites pointed out that the Emergency was one of the symptoms of colonial rule without colonialists. They believed that the Indian people should not be fooled by this or any party that would come into power and preserve the same rule under a different name. The Ghadarites hoped that Indians would develop a people's movement against this rule. They called upon the people to develop their unity and not be fooled by the "United Front" of Jan Sangh, CPI(M) and others because they all wanted to preserve the old rule. They brought the truth of the matter under the slogan "Indira Gandhi, Morarji Desai, Chor Chor Mauserey Bhai," that both Indira Gandhi and Morarji Desai represented the same forces and that they were brother and sister in preserving neo-colonial rule. Congress and Indira Gandhi were thoroughly defeated in the elections held in 1977 and a coalition of several other parties came to power in the centre. One of the first acts of this coalition government of "restoring democracy" was the firing of striking workers of Kanpur in which several workers were killed. This act revealed how the new coalition was not interested in the social transformation of Indian society, but were perpetuating the rule of the ruling elites with hook or crook.


In October 1977 the Ghadarites held a congress in which they issued a call to all Ghadarites to return to India to further consolidate and strengthen the unity of the revolutionary forces who wanted to take up the problems of India and search for real solutions.This was the third return of the Ghadarites to India since 1913. The Ghadarites started a paper People's Voice in India to develop discussion for the unity of the revolutionary forces. Like the old Ghadarites, they built ties and working relations with other revolutionary, democratic, and progressive organizations and forces. As a result of this work the Communist Ghadar Party of India came into being in 1980. Communist Ghadar Party declared at its founding that only the people of India, workers, peasants, women, youth, students, all the nations, and nationalities by their united forces can liberate India from medieval darkness and bring about prosperity, freedom, enlightenment and dignity to India. They would have to rely on their own forces to carry out such a transformation. They must all unite irrespective of their religious, political, ideological, caste, linguistic, and regional differences. Only they could establish a democratic India in which the rights of all the peoples will be respected and honoured. It called upon all the people of India to support the just struggles of all the oppressed and exploited abroad such as the struggle of the Palestinian people, South African people, workers struggle in Europe and Latin America, etc. It also condemned the racist attacks on the Indian people residing abroad in Britain, Canada, Australia, the US, and other places. They called upon the Indian residents in these countries to unite with the people of their countries to fight against the racist and fascist attacks.


On the cultural front, the Ghadarites also took various initiatives. Along with other organizations, they helped to organize the International Sports and Cultural Festivals in Canada, Britain and India, which were attended by thousands of people. The first international sports and cultural festival took place in Vancouver in 1981 and was attended by more than 40,000 people. It was during this festival that the first World Cup Kabbadi matches were held. In 1982 the festival was held in India and in 1983 it was held in Britain. These festivals were held under the slogan of 'Sports and Culture in service of the people." Thousands of people participated and supported these festivals, which helped to develop friendly relations between the people of South Asia as well as with South Asians living abroad. Kabbadi teams and other sportsmen from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, the USA, Canada, etc. participated in these festivals. Cultural personalities and performers from different parts of South Asia also participated. They also organized annual sports tournaments and cultural events to honour heroic martyrs such as Bhagat Singh, Mewa Singh, Udham Singh, etc., in cooperation with other groups and associations such as the East Indian Defence Committee and the Desh Bhagat Sports and Cultural Society. Just like the old Ghadaries, the new Ghadarites also conveyed their message through poems, songs, plays, dramas, stories, etc., in the various languages of India such as Hindustani, Punjabi, Bengali, Tamil, Malayalam, and Marathi.


The Ghadarites concluded the need for the renovation of Indian society and presented democratic renewal of India as the agenda of the day. They concluded that this renewal and renovation could only be achieved by the empowerment and affirmation of the people, and it can only be built by the people themselves. They analyzed that the present political process, representative democracy, actually disenfranchises the people. Political parties have become gatekeepers of power and have usurped the power of the people, often in the people’s name:


"The parliamentary system is in deep crisis not only in India but all over the world. The party in power, Congress (I) and the party in opposition, the BJP, openly declare they will abide by nothing and they are a law unto themselves. There are other political parties who think in the same way. How else is it possible to have riots, disappearances, murders and false encounters if these parties were not a law unto themselves? The present system, besides not solving any of the problems for the benefit of the people, also appears unable to provide a smooth transfer of governance from one political party to the other. The main cause of this is not that the Congress (I) or BJP are deviants, but that the system demands the existence of such parties for its perpetuation. People are putting forward their demands and all sections of the people are discontented with the situation, but the system can not satisfy them. There is a real pressure for the creation of a new kind of party, a party which would ensure that these political parties do not keep the people out of power."


It further analyzed:

"The origin of the political system that exists in India and the roots of the crisis of this system can be traced to the Government of India Act of 1935, the transfer of power that took place in 1947 and the constitution that was adopted in 1950...While the democracy that came into being was objectively and advance for the Indian people, it did not lead to their empowerment. This was because this democracy was based on the theory of concentrating power in the executive, in order to deprive the masses of power. The role of the president of India, the frequent declaration of President's Rule at the advice of the cabinet, the ruling party's power to define and redefine state boundaries, the very notion of 'cabinet rule', are all different features of this concentration of power in the hands of the executive."


On the present social development, they state:

"Today, on the eve of the 21st century, nobody can deny that people are born to society and society has a responsibility to look after their well being. This corresponds to the modern definition of rights and is also one of the central aspects of Indian political thought. However according to present day 'Western' ideologues, society has no obligation to anyone except to the financial oligarchy. The so-called individual interest is given primacy over the collective interest and the general interest of society. This imposition of imperialist theories on the soil of India is creating grave complications. It is contributing to the further deepening of the capitalist crisis and causing great resentment amongst the people. The big capitalists and big landlords are using these theories to create serious danger to the very well-being of the people and the future of society."


Following the tradition of the old Ghadarites, they seek the unity of all the peoples to deal with problems facing the society:

"The critical task is to build the political unity of all workers and people of the middle strata who are opposed to the existing state of affairs, especially to the criminalisation of the polity; to the use of state terrorism; to all the attacks on the freedoms of the people; and most importantly who stand for the economic well being of he workers and broad masses of the people. Declaration of this or that phrase from the classics of Marxism-Leninism, without seeking the same afresh from the objective and subjective conditions that confront the people will not contribute to progress whatsoever."


They also point out the reason for the miserable conditions of the people of India;

"Tragically for the working class and the toiling masses of India, emancipation has eluded them. This has happened because the propertied classes have bound them hand and foot to capitalism and to the remnants of feudalism. More importantly, the communist and workers movement has been undermined by social democracy. The fact that European social democracy presents itself in the colours of socialism and communism in India. The aspirations of the propertied classes created by colonialism and imperialism have dug their poisonous claws into the healthy body of the working class movement for emancipation…"


In the realm of theoretical considerations, the Ghadarites point out the necessity of Indian theory rather than Eurocentric ideas and theories for the liberation of India from hunger and starvation, oppression and exploitation, because these Eurocentric ideas and theories had only served to enslave India, mentally, politically, and economically:

"The starting point, the first step, the most immediate question and the long-term task that appears in India for the victory of the revolutionary movement is that of theory. It expresses itself most succinctly in the necessity for Indian theory, a theory emerging out of the conditions of India..."


The British colonialists attacked the Indian philosophy to the point of denying its existence or distorting it to serve their own ends by imposing irrationalism on Indian philosophy. The Ghadarites point out:

"The stagnation of the philosophy of Darshan is inextricably linked with the stagnation of Indian thought, and of the economic and political theories in our country. The Darshandharis, ensconced within the comfortable walls of Indian, America and British universities, pontificate about Indian philosophy, as if it has no relevance or link with the present conditions in India, with the illumination of the road to progress for the Indian people at this time in history. Idealist and religious interpretations are given of Darshan, to make it lifeless and useless for the Indian people. Meanwhile, deprived of philosophy and outlook to deal with the problems of today, the Indian people are left floundering helplessly, at the mercy of the bourgeoisie and imperialism."


On the task of Democratic Renewal and completing the anti-colonial revolution the Ghadarites point out:

"A thorough going anti-colonial revolution necessarily means ending the capitalist system and its democracy, which has deprived people of their economic and political power. An anti-colonial revolution, which is merely a matter of formal independence and not a social revolution has become anachronistic.


The entire experience from the time of 'transfer of power' to the Indian bourgeoisie in 1947, with the division of the Indian subcontinent, especially Bengal and Punjab, has proven that this has not led to deep-going transformations. On the contrary, the bourgeoisie has completely obstructed the social revolution. It has been proven that it is capitalism that is the defender of the remnants of feudalism; it is capitalism that is protecting imperialists and colonialist interests; it is capitalism that is the motor behind bourgeoisie in its globalisation of capital and production. Furthermore it is capitalism that has caused disaster in the countryside, deepening the agrarian problems, and trampling underfoot the slogan of the patriotic forces of ' Land to the Tiller'.


Festering at the base of Indian society at this time are capitalism and remnants of feudalism, with the superstructure of imperialism and colonial domination. This has made the conditions of life and work for the working classes and toiling masses extremely miserable. More than fifty percent of Indian people live in abysmal conditions of poverty, victims of malnutrition, ill health, illiteracy and every kind of disease. The government of India's entire program of 'poverty alleviation' has concentrated on juggling the figures prove that the percentage of the Indian people living below the poverty line has been decreasing. Official figures now claim that it is less than 20% of the population. This juggling itself shows the callousness of the Indian state and its rulers, who define poverty levels on the basis of whether people receive a certain amount of calories a day. It distorts the reality that human beings can not exist on the basis of minimum amount of staple food alone. They need other necessities to ensure against malnutrition such as pulses, vegetables, milk and meat; they need potable water, sanitation, health care, proper accommodation and clothes, and a clean, healthy, peaceful and stable environment conducive to living. They need education and culture, and the satisfaction of working for their ever increasing material and cultural needs."



Ghadarites point out the need for creating and building a new system or a new society in which the needs and claims of all the members of the Indian society will be attended to and honoured:

"The Indian system needs to be renovated with a new system at the base, a system consistent with the aspirations of the working class and the toiling masses, in step with the aspirations of the working class and peoples of the world. Such a system would put the well-being of the masses at the foundation of society as the aim of the economy. Far from making this aim a policy objective, it will become the fundamental law of the land. This new system will not only be modern, and the most up to date, it will also give rise to a confederal state in which all nations and tribal peoples will enjoy full equality and freedom. They will enjoy their right to self-determination up to and including secession, without which self-determination is reduced to a mere phrase. This new system will provide full opportunity to all the nations divided by colonialism to unite if they so desire. The new system will put a complete end to the colonial legacy and India will enter the family of nations as a most progressive force."

The Ghadar movement that started in 1913 amongst the patriotic, progressive and enlightened Indians abroad has gone through a great deal of changes based on the needs of time, but continues to inspire the people. Eighty-five years of struggle have not disheartened them. They still want solutions to their problems. Shaheed Bhagat Singh, who was greatly inspired by the Ghadarites, particularly Kartar Singh Sarabha, wrote prophetically, "Our struggle will continue as long as a handful of men, be they foreign or native, or both in collaboration with each other, continue to exploit the labour and resources of our people. Nothing shall deter us from this path."


The history of Ghadar Movement clearly bears out the truth of Bhagat Singh's statement. It is also a reflection of the deep love that the South Asians resident abroad have for their countries, and that they are second to none in making sacrifices for the cause of freedom, dignity and prosperity. Although they may be resident abroad, due to the conditions back home, the flame of liberty of their lands is lit in their hearts and they do not hesitate to make any sacrifice for the liberation of their countries and a life of honour and dignity. The Ghadar Movement shows that they will carry on seeking solutions to the problems that plague them both at home and abroad. It also shows that the South Asians are part of their nations no matter where they are resident and they are moved by the concerns of their nations.  


Literature Cited  


The Ghadr Directory, compiled by the Director, Intelligence Bureau, Home Department, Government of India, New-Delhi, 1934. p.1


An Account of Ghadr Conspiracy, F.C. Isemonger & J. Slattery, Indian Police, Punjab, Lahore, 1919, p. 14-15.


United States of America vs. Franz Bopp, et al., in the District Court of the United States for Southern Division of the Northern District of California, First Division, volume 1, 1917


Agnes Smedley, Janice and Stephen R. Mackinon, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1988 p.58


Ghadar Party Da Itihas (Punjabi), Part 1, 1912-1917, Desh Bhagat Yadgar Committee, Jullunder, 1969, p.99.


Ibid, p.101


Ibid, p.102


United States of India, A Monthly Review, San Francisco, September 1923


Bhagat Singh Bilga, Interview with Jaspal Singh and Jagdip Mann, June 30,1997, Birmingham, U.K


An Account of Ghadr Conspiracy, F.C. Isemonger & J. Slattery, Indian Police, Punjab, Lahore,1919, p.44


Ghadr Di Gunj, OR MIC 11599/28,OIOC London


Ghadar Party Da Itihas (Punjabi), Part 1, 1912-1917, Desh Bhagat Yadgar Committee, Jullundhur, 1969, p.106


An Account of Ghadr Conspiracy, F.C. Isemonger & J. Slattery, Indian Police, Punjab, Lahore,1919, p.44

Ibid, p.172


Political and Judicial Report, L/P&J/7/1059/1717, India Office Library, London


Terrorism in India 1917-1936,compiled in the Intelligence Bureau, Home Department, Government of India Press, Simla, 1937, p.192


Home (Political) April 1916, 471, Banaras Conspiracy Case (Judgement)


Ghadar Party Da Itihas(Punjabi), Part 1, 1912-1917, Desh Bhagat Yadgar Committee, Jullundhur, 1969, p.279


Ibid, p. 244


Ibid, p. 264-268


Ibid, p. 248



Communism In India, 1924-1927, Compiled in the Intelligence Bureau, Home Department, Government of India, Calcutta,1927 (Confidential) p.150


Ibid, p. 41

Theses, Resolutions and Manifestos of the First Four Congresses of the Third International, Pluto Press London, 1980 p.327.

Ibid, p. 413

Ibid, p. 158

The Ghadr Directory, compiled by the Director, Intelligence Bureau, Home Department, Government of India, New-Delhi, 1934. p. 2

The Trial of Bhagat Singh, A.G. Noorani, Konark Publishers Pvt. Ltd., Delhi, 1996

Documents of the History of the Communist Party of India, volume III B, Peoples Publishing House, New Delhi, 1979.p.155

Ibid, p.3

Ghadar Lehar De Unfole Warkey, Bhagat Singh Bilga,Desh Bhagat Yadgar Committe, Jullundhur,1989, p.180

Documents of the History of the Communist Party of India, volume III C, Peoples Publishing House, New Delhi, 1979.p.94-95.

Bhagat Singh Bilga, Interview with Jaspal Singh and Jagdip Mann, June 30,1997, Birmingham, U.K

Hindustani Ghadar Party Formed, Chingari, Organ of the Hindustani Ghadar Party,November 1970. Toronto

What Kind of Party, Discussion, Spring 94, Vol1. No.1, National Publications Centre, Toronto, 1994.

Ibid, p. 49

Whither India, Lok Awaz Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, 1996, p.16

Ibid, p. 25

Ibid, p. 41

Ibid, p. 54

Ibid, p. 57

Ibid, p. 98

Ibid, p. 109

A Tribute to Udham Singh, Hind Mazdoor Lehar, London, 1990 p.21


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